Santali: The Language of Santal Tribe

Santali (or Santhali) language belongs to the South-East Asia’s Male-Polynesian language family of Astro-Asiatic branch and it is spoken by Santali tribe of Jharkhand.
To learn Santali language and its grammar; one can refer to the following authors.
  1. An Introduction to the Santali Language by Germia Philips (1852).
  2. Vocabulary of the Santali Language by E.L. Paxle (1868).
  3. A Grammar of the Santali Language by L.O. Scrayphusruud (1873).
  4. A Santali English and English Santali Dictionary by A. Campbell (1879).
  5. Materials for A Santali Grammar (Part 1 & 2) and A Santali Dictionary by P.O. Bodding (1922,1929 & 1936).
  6. We have seen the use of Devnagri, Bangla, Oriya, Roman and now ‘Ol Chiki’ alphabets for writing in the language.
Santali language has rich collection of folk songs, folk-stories, sayings, riddles, essays, etc.; these can be discovered in the following books.
  1. Horh Sereng and Dorh Sereng by W.G. Archer and G.G. Soren.
  2. Sohrai Sereng and Dorh Soreng by Dr. Sahdev Marandi.
  3. Sohrai Sereng and Dorh Soreng by Bhagwat Murmu.
  4. Horh Kahni Ko by P.O. Bodding.
  5. Santali Lok Kathayein by Bhagwat Murmu.
  6. Horko Rain Mare Haaparamako Reyak Kaatha by L.O. Scrayphusruud, Kalyan Har’aam and Jugia Har’aam (1887).
  7. Horoko Rein Mare Haparamko Reyaak Katha.
  8. Kherwall Bonsa Dhorom Puthi by Ramdass Tudu (1900).
  9. Santalpargana, Santal Aar Pahariyakowalk Itihaas by C.H. Kumar (1937).
  10. Karaam Aar Chacho Chatiyar and Hor Bapla Puthi by S.H. Murmu (1945).
  11. Badoli-Koyanda by Mahadev Marandi (1967).
  12. Kaaram by Manindra Hansdak.
Santali language also has good collection of poems.
  1. Onoarehein Baha Daalwalk (Branch of Poetic Flowers) by Paul Jujhaar Soren.
  2. Saari Dhoroam Sereng by Sadhu Ramchand Murmu (1972 & 1979).
  3. Gira, Kirtaan Kali and Aasaad Binati by Tor’e Sutaam.
  4. Gosoo Baha by Aditya Mitr Santali.
  5. Koyoko Hor by Adivasi.
  6. Bhurka Eipeel, Kuhubau and Lahaak Hor Re by Sarda Prasad Kisku.
  7. Chandmala and Bakhra by Gorachand Tudu.
  8. Bidrau by Basudev Besra.
  9. Jereit Divaha by Paaneer Piyo.
  10. Tiriya-Tetaran by Harihar Hansdak.
  11. Parsi Baha by Raghunath Murmu.
  12. Setaik by Samir.
  13. Sereng Binda by Krishan Chandra Tudu.
Few collections of stories and novels written in Santali including few translations have also contributed towards the growth of the literature.
  1. Harmawalk Aato by R.R.K. Rapaj (1946) is a translation in Santali of an English novel Harma’s Village by R. Castreyas.
  2. Mit Ten Kurieng Dulaar Kedya by Gora Chand Tudu is a translation in Santali of an English novel I Love a Girl by Walter Drawicks.
  3. Aato-Orako by Doman Hansdak.
  4. Muhila Chechet Dai, Garbaan Rain Koda and Aapa-Bare Kusi Bapla by Nanku Soren.
  5. Matha Surha by Tore Sutaam.
  6. Bull Munda, Maatal by Dr. Doman Sahu.
  7. Kukum and Pey Pawa Chawale by Armaan.
  8. Dulaar-Chinha by Nunulal Hembrom.
  9. Aaraak Peyaalapur by T.K. Rapaaj.
  10. Disom Bhokta by Adivasi.
The plays written in Santali language are as under:
  1. Bindu-Chandaan and Kherwaar Veer by Pandit Raghunath Murmu.
  2. Aakeel Yaar by Armaan.
  3. Tudu Koda Mandaryiya by Lodai Soren.
  4. Aale Aato and Maangarh Manjhi by Shayam.
  5. Hasa Aar Bhasha and Paheel Maarsaal by Sahdev Marandi.
  6. Horak Bapla by Vasa.
  7. Juri Khatir by Krishan Chandra Tudu.
  8. Bhinsaar Mayaam by Tore Sutaam.
Few magazines and the journals in Santali are also published from time to time.
  1. Hoar-Sombaad, Weekly, Dumka
  2. Silli, Sagain Saakaam, Umool, Jug Sirijool, Chithi Saakaam, etc.

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