Tribes of Jharkhand (Part-III)

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16. Kharia:
A primitive Kolarian tribe (Russell and Hira Lal 1916), the Khariasare divided into three sub-tribes, namely the Hill, Dudh and Dhelki-Kharias.
So far as their manners and customs are concerned, they are three separate and distinct branches of the Kharia tribe. Marriage among them does not take place.
The Hill Kharias are a most primitive community,depending upon forest resources such as collection of honey, edible roots,herbs and fruits. The other sections of the Kharias have taken to plough cultivation and are economically better off than the Hill Kharias. They are distributed in the districts of Ranchi, Singhbhum, Santhal Pargans, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, and Palamau. The language spoken by them is known as Kharia, which is a branch of Munda family of languages.
17. Kharwars:
The Kharwars are a Dravidian tribe (Sunder, 1898) and their legend is that they came to Palamau originally from Kherijar whence the name Kharwar.They now inhabit the districts of Palamau, Ranchi, Santhal Paragnas, Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, and Dhanbad. The Kharwars are a settled agriculturist community of Chotanagpur Plateau and Bihar. But their life is at different stages of growth in different regions of Jharkhand.The community is further sub-divided into a number of endogamous units.
18. Khond:
Khond are a Dravidian tribe (Russell and Hira Lal 1916), found in Oriya Sambalpur district (Orissa) and adjoining states. In Jharkhand, they inhabit districts of Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Singhbhum, and Santhal Parganas. According to the above mentioned authors the Khond tribes call themselves Kinloka or Kuienju, which may possibly be derived from Ko or Ku a Telgu word for a mountain. They speak the Khond or Kandh language, popularly called kin by the Khonds themselves.
19. Kisan:
The Kisans also frequently called Nagasias are divided into 3 endogamous sub-tribes (i) Telia, (ii) Dhuria, and (iii) Sinduria.The Kisans as the name implies are an agricultural community. They are also called ‘Chasa’. They are distributed in the districts of Palamau, Ranchi, SanthalParganas, Singhbhum, and Hazaribagh.
20. Kora:
According to Risley (1891), ‘Kora’, Keora, Khair or Khayra, a Dravidian caste of earth workers and cultivators is probably an offshoot of the Mundatribe. The Koras inhabit the districts of Santhal Parganas, Singhbhum, Dhanbad, Ranchi,and Hazaribagh. Risley has reported different traditions of their origin, which differ from place to place. The Koras of Santhal Paraganas claim to have come from Nagpur. Another section assigns the origin of their totem Barda to their eatingof the human placenta hung from the branch of the Barda tree, while out on hunting. Similarly other sections have different versions of their origins and the origin of their totems.
21. Korwa:
The Korwas are a Dravidian tribe of Palamau, resembling Kharwars (Sunder, 1898). A great Bulk of Korwars belongs to Sarguja and Jashpur. In Jharkhand they live in the districts of Palamau, Dhanbad, Ranchi, Singhbhum, Santhal Parganas, and Hazaribagh. The Korwas like the Kisans of the region have forgotten their Korwa dialect (Mundari-group) and speak Sadri. They used to work as a Dhangers or labourers on wage.
22. Lohra:
The Lohras live with other tribal and non-tribal people of Jharkhand, namely the Mundas, Oraons, Chik Baraik, Ahirs, Rajputs etc. They are distributed in the districts of Ranchi, Singhbhum, Palamau, Santhal Parganas and Dhanbad. Black-smithy used to be their main occupation.
23. Mahali:
According to Risley (1891), the Mahali are divided into 5 sub-tribes namely, (i) Bansphor (basket maker), (ii) Patar (Cultivators), (iii) Sulunki (labourers), (iv) Tanti (Palanquin-carriers) and (v) Mahali Munda (a small outlaying sub-caste confined to Lohardaga).
A comparison of Mahali totemistic clans or septs gives an indication of their close association with the Santhals. The Mahalis occupation of basket work was thought to be degrading from the point of view of the Santhals and the adoption of this occupation must have given the necessity for the emergence of new tribal group. They inhabit the districts of Ranchi, Santhal Parganas, Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, and Palamau.
24. Mal Pahariya:
The Pahariyas form an isolated Malto (Dravidian) speaking group and consists of Sauria, Maler, Mal and Kumarbhag. But two main divisions of the Paharias are the Sauria-Paharia and Mal-Paharia including Kumarbhag. They have been recognized as two separate tribes.
According to Risley (1891), the Mal-Pahariyas are a Dravidian tribe inhabitting the districts of Santhal Paraganas, Singhbhum, and Ranchi. Buchanan Hamilton (1929) considered northern tribe of Rajmahal as brethren of their southern neighbours the Maler (plural of Male). But according to Dalton(1872), the Mal Pahariya appears to be altogether unconnected with the Rajmahal Hill–men. Ball (1880) stated that the Mal Pahariyas are completely distinct in their appearance, customs and language from the Asal-Pahariyas who occupy the Raj Mahal Hills proper. The Major source oflivelihood of the tribe is Kurwa (shifting cultivation).

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