Special Memorandum of the Land System of the Munda Country (IX)

By Father J. Hoffman and Mr. E. Lister
B.  Constitution and Administration of the Pati
The Pati and The Manki:
A Khuntkatti area is subdivided into circles called Patis. The Pati comprises generally at least 10 or 12 villages.The Manki is the chief of a Pati, and his duties now consist mainly in realizing the quit-rents due by the villages of his Pati to the superior landlord, as well as other dues, such as road-cess and Rakumats. Formerly, he used to settle land and other disputes arising in the villages of his Pati, and also to exercise general police power, he having, in conjunction with a Panchayat of village authorities (Mundas and Pahanrs), the generally acknowledged right of inflicting fines and other punishments for all kinds of offences reported to him. Of the quit-rents levied by him, usually one half is handed to the superior landlord and the other half retained as his own share.
Thakur and Chaputa Villages:
The villages of a Pati are divided into 2 categories, viz.,
(1)         Thakur villages:
These villages contribute the superior landlord’s share of the rent.
(2)         Chaputa villages:
These villages contribute to the Manki’s share of rent. Over the Chaputa villages the Manki naturally exercised a more direct and personal influence. Thus he might in the matter of collecting rent trespass on the ordinary right of the Munda and Pahanr. This greater personal influence proved a strong temptation, and, as the courts, with their legal formalities, more and more affected the village administration, the Mankis occasionally succeeded, with the help and under the cover of those formalities, in raising the rent in such villages and sometimes even in imposing creatures of their own, not belonging to the Kili of the villages, as Mundas or rent-collectors. But with the Pahanr’s rights and office they could never tamper, even in a Chaputa village, to the extent of imposing a creature of their own as Pahanr.
Mode of collecting Quit-Rent:
The following is now generally the manner of collecting the Quit-Rent due by the entire village. The head of the Pahanr Khunt collects the quota or Chanda due by his own Khunt-fellows and the head of the Munda-Khunt collects the Chanda due by his Khunt-followers. Both the Munda and Pahanr are generally exempt from paying any part of the Chanda.
In villages, in which the Khuntkattidars have admitted members of another Kili as Raiyats, the total Chanda may be made up by these Raiyats, and the Khuntkattidars, or at least a certain number of them belonging to the senior branches of the family, may be exempt from contributing to the Quit-rent.
As a rule, the Manki makes out a collective receipt in the names of both the Munda and the Pahanr; and in some instances two separate receipts are given, one to the Munda and one to the Pahanr.

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