Chapter IV. Occupancy-Raiyats (CNT Act 1908) – Excerpts (B)

Chapter IV. Occupancy-Raiyats
Bhuinhars and Mundari Khuntkattidars to be settled Raiyats in certain cases:
The following classes of persons shall be deemed to settled Raiyats for the purpose of this Act, in regard to the land in their villages which they cultivate as Raiyats (Other than their own Bhuinhari or Mundari Khuntkatti land, and other than landlords’ privileged lands):-
(a)   where any land in a village, other than land known as Manjhihas or Bethkheta, is entered in any register prepared and confirmed under the CNT Act 1869- All members of any Bhuinhari family who hold, and have for 12 years continuously held, land in such village, and
(b)   where any village contains land not forming part of a Mundari Khuntkattidari tenancy, and an entry of Mundari Khuntkattidari tenancies or of Mundari Khuntkattidari in such village has been made in any record-of-rights as finally published under this Act or under any law in force before the commencement of this Act – all male members of any Mundari Khuntkattidari family who hold, and have for 12 years continuously held, land in such villages.
The Bhuinhari lands surveyed and recorded under the provisions of Acts of 1869 are tenures. Mundari Khuntkattidars are neither Raiyats nor tenure-holders. De facto, however, both these classes of tenants approximate to Raiyats; and, as the Bhuinhars and Mundari Khuntkattidari frequently hold Raiyati lands, in addition to their privileged tenancies, it is therefore they are regarded as Raiyats. All members of a Bhuinahri family and all male members of a Mundari Khuntkattidari family, who hold and have held continuously land in the village for 12 years, shall be deemed to be settled Raiyats, in respect of any land which they may hold as Raiyats.
The Manjhihas and Bethkheta lands are the landlords’ private lands, which are at his absolute disposal.
Data essential for Rent Settlement:
Before rents can be settled on a large scale, it is essential to survey and classify the lands comprised within each tenancy. The local standards of measure in use in most parts of Chota Nagpur are quite indefinite standards. They are known as Rekhs, Hals, Pawas, Annas, Kats, etc. The areas of these units are not constant even for the same village.
A Hal of land in part of Singhbhum varies from 12 to 60 Bighas, and an Anna of land in Ranchi district varies from 1 to 10 acres, according to the locality.
Another very important factor in rent settlement is the classification of the land. In most areas there are found to be 3 well known classes of rice lands.
(i)         First class rice lands are those which lie at the bottom of the depression, in which Aghani Dhan is grown. The crop of these lands is usually cut in November-December.
(ii)       Second class rice lands are those, which are situated on the middle terraces, in which Kartika Dhan is grown. The crop is usually cut in October or early in November.
(iii)      Third class rice lands are those which are situated on the highest terraces. The crop is usually cut in September or in October.
Rice lands are locally known as Don, Dohar, and Dhani Jamin, and comprise all the wet low-lands of the village, which have been set apart for the cultivation of the rice.
The up-lands of the village, which are generally known as Gora or Tarn lands are also generally sub-divided into 3 classes:
(i)        First class up-lands are those which are generally situated near the village site, which are richly manured, and produce special crops.
(ii)       Second class up-lands are those which are more removed from the village site, but which are comparatively level and possess a considerable depth of a soil.
(iii)      Third class up-lands are those which are stony and possess little depth of soil.
In order to settle fair rents equitably, it is essential to consider the relative productivity of the different classes of land comprised within each tenancy.

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