Chapter II. Classes Of Tenants (CNT Act 1908) – Excerpts (A)

Chapter II. Classes of Tenants
Classes of tenants:
(1)         tenure-holders, including under-tenure-holders
(2)         Raiyats, namely:-
(a)   occupancy-raiyats, or raiyats having a right of occupancy in the land held by them,
(b)    non-occupancy raiyats, or raiyats not having such a right of occupancy,
(c)    raiyats having khunt-katti rights;
(3)         under raiyats, or tenants holding, whether immediately or mediately, under raiyats, and
(4)         Mundari Khunt-Kattidars.
Tenure-holders:
A person who has acquired from the proprietor, or from another tenure-holder, a right to hold land for the purpose of collecting rents or bringing it under cultivation by establishing tenants on it; and includes–
(a)    the successors in interest of person who have acquired such a right, and
(b)    the holders of tenures entered in any register prepared and confirmed under the Chota Nagpur Tenures Act 1869; but does not include a Mundari Khunt-Khattidar.
The survey and record, which extended only to portions of Ranchi District, were completed in 1880 and a register was prepared showing all the incidents of the tenures. Under the provisions of Act II of 1869, this register is a final and conclusive record.
Bhutkheta, Dalikatari and Pahnai tenures consist of lands set apart for the due performance of the worship of the village spirits or “Bhuts” of the aborigines and as remuneration to the village priest or Pahan for the duties, which he is required to perform.
The “Pahnai” lands are usually in possession of the recognized Pahan of the village. He cannot legally alienate them, or create encumbrances on them. It is sometimes found, however, that the Pahans do create encumbrances on these tenures and the local Courts, in ignorance of their real character, have permitted them to be sold and bought in auction, in satisfaction of decrees for debts obtained against the Pahan. In this way, many of the tenures have been permanently lost to the members of the village community, who have not taken the trouble to come to court, and lodge objections against the sale of what is really communal property.
Mahatoai lands are those which are set apart as remuneration for the village headman or Mahato. Many of these tenures have been resumed by the landlord.
Bhuinhari lands are those which have been reclaimed and bought under cultivation by the original clearers of the villages or their descendents. They are either rent free or at quit rents fixed in perpetuity.
Manjhihas tenures correspond to the nij-jote of Bengal. They are landlords’ privileged lands. They are at the “absolute disposal” of the landlord.

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