Chapter I. Preliminary
Bhugut bandha mortgage:
It means a transfer of the interest of a tenant in this tenancy, for the purpose of securing the payment of money advanced or to be advanced by way of loan, upon the condition that the loan, with all interest thereon, shall be deemed to be extinguished by the profits arising from the tenancy during the period of the mortgage.
It means by whatever name locally known, such as bahbala, khandwat, jalsasan, or ariat, which has been artificially levelled or embanked primarily for the cultivation of rice, and
(a) which previously was jungle, waste or uncultivated, or was cultivated upland, or which, though previously cultivated, has become unfit for the cultivation of transplanted rice, and
(b) which has been prepared for cultivation by a cultivator (other than the landlord), or by his predecessor in interest (other than the landlord), with or without the consent of the landlord according as such consent is required or not.
In Ranchi district, this class is generally described as Korkar, in Hazaribagh as Khandwat, and in Manbhum as Jalsasan or Ariat. The term Bahbala is also used in Ranchi. In Ranchi District, it has been found that Korkar lands are held rent free for the first four or five years, while they are under preparation. They are then assessed at only half the rates of rent payable by occupancy Raiyats for lands of a similar description within the village. The Korkar rate may be enhanced according to custom, but not so as to exceed half the rate payable by occupancy Raiyats, locally known as Chattisa Raiyats.
In Manbhum district the custom is different. The Raiyats who prepares the lands holds them rent free for four or five years. Rent is then assessed at prevailing rates; but the tenant is allowed a remission of rent by way of remuneration for his labour in preparing the land.
According to the universal custom a Raiyat, who cultivates or holds land which he or any member of his family has converted into Korkar, obtains a right of occupancy at once in the holding.
Mundari Khunt-Kattidari tenancy:
It means the interest of a Mundari Khunt-Kattidar. Mundari Khunt-Kattidars are neither “tenure-holder” nor “Raiyats”, but they are “tenants”.
Rakumats: The payments are known as Rakumats.
Bethbegari: The compulsory services as Bethbegari or Madad.