Chapter XIII. Praedial Conditions and the Commutation and Record thereof (CNT Act 1908) Excerpts (A)

Chapter XIII. Praedial Conditions and the Commutation and Record thereof
Praedial services are now included in the expression praedial conditions, which are defined to mean conditions and services appurtenants to the occupation of land, other than rent.
They include Rakumats and Begari and every other similar demand whether regularly recurrent or intermittent.
In Ranchi district it has been found that they are leviable on chhatisa holdings only, i.e., on holdings consisting of a portion of low rice land (Don) and some complementary high land (Tanr). They are not leviable by custom on holdings which consist of Don or Tanr only.
The cash rent appears to be payable for the Don lands and the Rakumats and Begari are payable or renderable for the complementary Tanr. Rakumats consist of various payments in kind, and miscellaneous dues or abwabs. Their incidence varies from village to village. They are payable per unit of land, or per tenancy, and are sometimes leviable on the whole village. The most common kind of Rakumats payable in kind are Urid, Sarguja, Kapas, Gondli, Dhan, Straw and Kher. They are in reality a kind of produce rents consisting of a fixed quota of the produce of the up-land included in each tenancy; but, as they are by local custom regarded as praedial conditions, they are commuted as such. The other class of Rakumats consists of miscellaneous and sometimes irregular dues, which may be classified as Abwabs. The most common items in Ranchi district are Dasai, Batta, Bhatta, Rasid Likhai, Dak Mushara, Neg, Bardoch, Sarai Chaul or Nawakhani, Danrpancha, rafters, bamboos, and Ghee.
Dasai: Is the payment or consideration made to the landlord by his Raiyats and under tenure-holder at the time of the Dashara festival. Sometimes the contribution takes the form of goats or buffaloes for sacrifice; but, payments in cash are now usually made, which are known as Dosain Behri or Dosain Salami.
Batta: Is merely an allowance for the exchange of Sicca rupees into Company’s rupees. Under the provisions of Act XIII of 1836, Sicca rupees ceased to be legal tender, but were receivable at the treasuries subject to a charge of one per cent for recoinage. The value of the Sicca rupees was slightly higher than the value of the present coin; and, the impost was consequently necessary to cover loss in exchange.
Bhatta: Is a charge to meet the expenses of the landlord and his servants, whenever they visit a village to collect rents, etc.
Rasid Likhai: Is the charge which is usually made for giving rent receipts. It amounts to one or Annas per tenancy, but it is now an illegal levy, as all landlords are bound to give receipts free of charge and its value cannot therefore be allowed in commutation proceedings.
Dak Mushara: Or Dak Cess is a cess which was originally levied by landlords to meet the expenses of the Government Dak-cess, which was imposed on Zamindars for the conveyance of the Dak or post. Dak cess has now, however, being abolished by Act IV of 1907, and the charge is therefore, no longer leviable.
Neg: It means the same as Dasturi. It is a customary payment which is made on certain occasions, such as marriages. Neg is a general terms, e.g., Rasid Likhai is the Neg of the person who writes out a rent receipt.
Nawakhani or Sarai Chaul: Nawakhani is a contribution of rice made by Raiyats on an auspicious day, when the winter rice has been harvested.
Danrpancha: Is a contribution made by the Raiyats in villages where there is a large amount of Tarn, and no attempt has been made to find out whether the Raiyats cultivate more than they are entitled to.

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