Dr. Ram Dayal Munda rightly considers that culturally this the only area in the entire India where the three major cultural streams – Aryan, Dravidian and Austro-Asian represented through various languages have converged to create a cultural synthesis of its own kind.
That is why when there was any movement led by the natural leaders they faced their enemies as a complete phalanx, a well-knit / house divided between so-called tribals and non-tribals, Diku and non-Diku.
It is only after the hosts of Thikadars, Katkindars and Sazawals were introduced in this part of the country when it came under the rule of East India Company and Maharaja of Chotanagpur Deep Nath Sahdeo and others Khorposdars imbibed the habit of extorting and oppressing the Praja (Raiyats) that ultimately led to the Great Kol Rebellion of 1832-33. That was a wide conflagration of fire of alienation against the alien oppression. This could be discerned from the fury of rebellion in different parts of Chotanagpur.
Same was the case with Santhal Rebellion of 1855. It was a revolt against the oppressive system of the money-lenders practically supported by the British-masters. The aftermath of Santhal Hul also showed the Santhal Raiyats agitating against European farmers in 1860 and 1871. Santhal opposed European Zamindars like Mr. Barnes in the Howrah Parganas in 1860 and Mr. Graham in 1971. Mr.Barnes was also faced with similar Santhal unrest under their Manjhi’s.
In 1874, Bhagirath Movement led to Safahor movement and 1880 Dubia Gosain led the Safahor or Kherwars of Hazaribagh against the census authorities and the administration.
After 1857 the British crown assumed responsibility of the Administration of these areas and several Survey and settlement were mooted. A large number of Amlas,Patwaris, Tandails, Makhteayars, Shokhitiyars, tax gatherers, police personnel etc. were introduced in this area. They let loose all source of oppression and tyranny which alienated locals to great extent and the Christian Missionary had also came to preach in this area. Father Livence and others helped the raiyats against the Zamindari’s oppressions and that added faggot to the fire father Notrott of G.L. Church was responsible to a great extent for famous constitutional battle, the Sardari Ladai.