1860s: Bhagirath Kherwar and Sapha Hor Movement

At about the same time some section of the Santhal leadership was convinced that no good could be achieved unless and until revitalization movement is carried on among the people.
Therefore, we find Bhagirath, proclaiming himself as the King of Santhals and the representative of God. Bhagirath Kherwar’s movement spread like a wild-fire among the Santhals of Santhal Parganas and the Government had to take strong punitive measures to crush it. This rebellion fire also spread to Hazaribagh where Dubia Gossain and his followers preached on the lines of Bhagirath. They also resisted the first census operation among the Santhals.
This movement too was suppressed but not before its suppression convinced the people, that their upliftment lay in purifying themselves and regenerating themselves as Sapha Hor or pure man. The leaders in bloody battle against the British were unsuccessful and therefore, out of sheer calculation they switched on to a revitalization movement like Sapha Hor movement, which was to a great extent native and reformation in nature.

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