1857: Mutiny in Santhal Pargana

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The outbreak of Great Mutiny at Meerut and Delhi created great excitement throughout Jharkhand (Bihar) and the repercussions were felt in whole of India.
The sparks were visible here and there in Jharkhand; and the general conflagration was expected to turn into full-fledged revolt at any moment.
On 12th June 1857 there was first outbreak of the movement at Rohini in Santhal Parganas, the Headquarters of the 5th Irregular Cavalry under Major MacDonald. Three troopers attacked Lt. Sir (Sergeant) Norman Leslie, the Adjutant, and the Assistant Surgeon Mr. Grant Leslie was killed and other two were wounded, but Mac-Donald ruthlessly suppressed the rising and inflicted horrible punishment on the three troopers on the 16thJune 1857. Soon the headquarters of the regiment was shifted to Bhagalpur from Rohini.
In Santhal Parganas the previous Revolt of the Santhals in 1855 acted as cushion in 1857 so far as the indigenous population of the district was concerned. This was possibly because the Santhal Revolt had taught a very good lesson to the British Administrators; who read the writing on the wall and changed the entire set-up of the administration. But for these administrative changes the Revolt of Rohini on 12th June 1857 would have spread far and wide. 
But in spite of the changed set up the moment did break out in 1857. The administrative crisis occurred, bands of men commenced plundering, Jeypore Deoghar was threatened, and the people from the neighboring states started leaving the region. If the situation had continued to remain tense and rebellious, the whole region would have been lost.
Quick movement of the British troops was helpful in crushing the movement. Another reason of the suppression of the movement was the inaccessibility of the area where news from Northern India could not reach quickly and also practically there was dearth of leaders among the Santhals because of the violent suppression of such popular revolts in not so distant past. 
Insurrection in 1857
Throughout the whole of Chotanagpur Division, the British authority was seriously threatened by the local freedom fighters. Although the cantonments were epicentre of revolt, at places especially in Singhbhum and Palamau the revolt had taken the shape of popular struggle. The company of infantry at Hazaribagh revolted towards the end of July 1857 and the European Officers just managed to run away from their station. Such smouldering discontent soon manifested itself in open outbreaks at various other places too.

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